Arid
荒漠藓类结皮斑块效应对土壤养分的影响
Alternative TitleThe influence of patch effect on the soil nutrients in moss crust patch in a temperate desert
李茜倩
Year Published2018
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor张元明
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Abstract in Chinese由于干旱荒漠生态系统土壤资源呈现高度异质性,植被分布斑块化成为该生态系统的一种普遍现象。藓类结皮是荒漠地表生物土壤结皮的主要类型之一,自然状态下通常呈现出典型的斑块状分布特征。斑块作为苔藓结皮发挥生态功能的基本单元,对土壤生态过程具有深刻的影响。荒漠地表生物结皮对土壤肥力的保持具有重要作用,与土壤理化性质、土壤酶、微生物生物量与土壤肥力及活性密切相关,然而大多关于生物结皮与土壤养分的报道多将生物结皮作为统一的整体进行采样和研究,而斑块效应(边缘效应?面积效应)下生物结皮层土壤的养分如何分布,相关的研究还鲜见报道。本研究以古尔班通古特沙漠藓类结皮斑块为研究对象,通过测定斑块内土壤理化性质、酶活性、微生物生物量碳氮等指标,比较藓类结皮层土壤在斑块效应(边缘效应、面积效应)下土壤特性的变化特征。并对藓类结皮层土壤在边缘效应及面积效应下对土壤肥力进行综合评定,为深入了解荒漠生态系统藓类结皮的生态功能提供依据。本文主要研究结果:1、藓类结皮斑块边缘效应。边缘效应对藓类结皮斑块对不同土壤养分的影响不同。藓类结皮斑块边缘圈层的土壤有机质(SOM)、全氮(TN)、全钾(TK)、脲酶(UE)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、微生物生物量碳(SMBC)、微生物生物量氮(SMBN)、AWCD均显著低于内部两个圈层,而全磷(TP)、速效氮(AN)、速效磷(AP)、速效钾(AK)、pH值、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、蔗糖酶(SC)、β-葡萄糖苷酶(β-GC)等指标均不受边缘效应的影响,在三个圈层间无显著差异。同时,土壤各项指标在斑块内部两个圈层均无显著差异。最小数集法对边缘效应下土壤质量的综合评价结果表明,适用的最小数据集(MDS)包括:SOM、AK、AP、ALP及β-GC;藓类结皮斑块的土壤质量指数(SQI)显示从中心至边缘有逐渐降低的趋势,内部两个圈层的肥力无显著差异,且中心圈层土壤质量指数(0.61±0.53)显著高于边缘圈层(0.41±0.03);灰色关联度分析法定量分析表明,藓类结皮斑块三个圈层土壤肥力的关联度值依次为:中心圈层(0.65)>中间圈层(0.59)>边缘圈层(0.47),藓类结皮斑块结皮层的土壤肥力从中心至边缘逐渐降低。2、藓类结皮斑块面积效应。藓类结皮斑块结皮层的土壤SOM、TN、TP、TK、AN、AK总体上表现为随着面积的增大其含量也呈升高的趋势,而AP含量及pH值变化不大。不同面积大小的土壤酶活性、微生物生物量总体表现为:随着藓类结皮斑块面积的增大,土壤酶活性、微生物生物量的含量也逐渐增高,但当面积达到一定大小时,土壤酶活性、微生物生物量的含量增加缓慢甚至有所降低。最小数集法分析结果表明,土壤质量指数SQI总体表现为随着斑块面积增大逐渐升高的趋势,并将土壤不同面积大小的土壤质量指数分大(643.91 cm2-690.43 cm2)、中(212.49 cm2-641.47 cm2)、小(178.16 cm2-197.63 cm2)及微小(61.15 cm2-89.07cm2)面积斑块四类,且四类斑块的SQI表现为:大面积斑块>中等面积斑块>小面积斑块>微小面积斑块。灰色关联度分析表明,四类斑块土壤肥力的关联度大小为大面积斑块>中等面积斑块>小面积斑块>微小斑块。本研究证实了藓类结皮微斑块具有同植被景观斑块相似的斑块效应,表现在边缘效应和面积效应两方面,使荒漠地表土壤生物和非生物要素分布的空间异质性增强,从而影响荒漠生态系统养分循环过程。
Abstract in EnglishPatchiness is regarded as a common phenomenon of arid and semi-arid region due to high heterogeneity. Moss crust, one of the main types of biological soil crusts in desert ecosystems, mainly occurred in the form of patches with different sizes. As the basic unit of ecological function of moss crusts, the patches have a profound impact on the ecological processes with the surrounding environment. As an engineer in the desert ecosystem of arid and semi-arid region, the biological crust has an important effect on soil fertility preservation. Soil physical and chemical properties, soil enzymes, microbial biomass are closely related to soil fertility. Most of the relationships between biological crust and soil nutrients have been studied as a unified whole. However, little is known about the distribution of soil nutrients under the patch effect (edge effect and area effect). To understanding the ecological function of moss crust in the desert ecosystem., the soil fertility under the edge effect and area effect was evaluated comprehensively, and the main results of this paper are as follows:1. Edge effect of moss crust patch. Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total potassium, urease, catalase, microbial biomass C and microbial biomass N were significantly influenced by the edge effect, with higher in center and middle circle and less in the edge one. There was no significant difference of other soil indicators in three circles. A minimum data set (MDS) for soil fertility quality evaluation was defined and developed with the principal component analysis and correlation analysis, which indicated that a majority of the soil characteristics with center circle and middle circle were better than soil characteristics with edge circle, and the soil quality of center is best. soil organic matter(SOM), available phosphorus(AP), available potassium(AK), acid phosphatase(ALP), β-glucosidase(β-GC), was selected as the minimum data set (MDS). The SQ index (SQI) showed that soil quality among the three circles with moss patch ranged from 0.41 to 0.61 and the values were significantly higher in center circle than in middle circle and edge circle. The data of soil fertility was analyzed quantitatively by grey relational analysis, and ranked by correlation degrees comprehensively. The results showed that: The order of soil fertility in three circle with moss crust patch under the edge effect was center circle (0.65)>middle circle (0.59)>edge circle (0.47). We conclude that the soil fertility of moss crust patches present a trend of decrease from the center to edge.2. Area effect of moss crust patch. The characteristics of the soil in the moss crust were different with different areas. The contents of soil SOM, TN, TP, TK, AN and AK in the mosses crust patches showed a trend of increasing with area, while the content of AP and pH did not change much. The soil enzyme activity and microbial biomass of different areas and sizes are as follows: with the increase of area of moss crust patch, the content of soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass increased gradually, but when the area reaches a certain size, the content of soil enzyme activities, microbial biomass increased slowly and even decreases. (1) A minimum data set(MDS) for soil fertility quality evaluation was defined and developed with the principal component analysis and correlation analysis, which indicated that a majority of the soil characteristics with big area were higher than soil properties with small area. Organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, instant potassium, urease, catalase, sucrase, alkaline phosphatase and pH, was selected as the minimum data set (MDS). After the Euclidean clustering was performed on the soil quality index of different areas obtained, overall performance for different size of SQI along with the rising of the area, the larger the moss crust patch area was, the higher SQI of different size moss crust present. And they were divided into four grades: big area, middle area, small area and micro area. The ranking of SQI was: large area moss patch (643.91 cm2-690.43 cm2) > medium area moss patch (212.49 cm2-641.47 cm2) > small area moss patch (178.16 cm2-197.63 cm2) > micro-area (61.15 cm2-89.07cm2) moss patch. The data of soil fertility was analyzed quantitatively by grey relational analysis and grey clustering analysis for different size of patches of mosses crust. The results showed that: there were four grades among 15 different size of moss patches: big area, middle area, small area and micro area. The correlation degree of soil fertility was: large area moss patch > medium area moss patch > small area moss patch > micro area moss patch.This study confirmed that the micro patchs (moss crust patch) were similar to the vegetation landscape patches effect, manifested in two aspects of edge effect and area effect, and enhanced the spatial heterogeneity of desert surface soil biological and non-biological factors distribution of spatial heterogeneity, which affects desert ecosystem nutrient cycling process.
Keyword in Chinese藓类结皮 ; 斑块效应 ; 土壤养分 ; 最小数据集法 ; 灰色关联分析
Keyword in Englishmoss crust patch patch effect soil nutrients MDS grey relation analysis
Language中文
Country中国
Subject of Source植物学
Source Institution中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://119.78.100.177/qdio/handle/2XILL650/288165
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李茜倩. 荒漠藓类结皮斑块效应对土壤养分的影响[D]. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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